Cardiosclerosis is a partial replacement of normal myocardial tissue with connective tissue fibers. This occurs in areas of death of myocardiocytes, for example, in the outcome of myocarditis or severe myocardial dystrophy, as well as in the focus of necrosis in myocardial infarction.
Cardiosclerosis can be diffuse, when the elements of connective tissue are more or less evenly distributed over the entire area of the myocardium, and focal (cicatricial), characterized by the formation of inclusions in the healthy heart muscle of connective tissue areas of various sizes, which is mainly observed after myocardial infarction and less often in the outcome of a focal inflammatory process.
Clinical the picture depends on the location and prevalence of the lesion: the greater the percentage of the mass of connective tissue in relation to the mass of a fully functioning myocardium, the higher the risk of developing heart failure and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. Moreover, when even small zones of cardiosclerosis are located in the cardiac conduction system, intracardiac conduction is almost always disrupted, and arrhythmias appear.
When establishing a diagnosis, doctors are guided by anamnesis (previous myocarditis, heart attacks, etc.) , the relative stability of the objective signs of arrhythmias (sensations of interruptions in the work of the heart) and heart failure such as edema, shortness of breath, acrocyanosis, etc.In terms of laboratory and instrumental diagnostics, electrocardiography is necessarily prescribed, in which persistent changes characteristic of cardiosclerosis will be identified, and echocardiography, which allows detecting replacement of the myocardium with connective tissue. If necessary, a radionuclide study is also prescribed.
As for the treatment of cardiosclerosis, a fundamentally new and promising direction is cell therapy, the effect of which is based on the ability of immature stem cells to regenerate the heart muscle and blood vessels. These cells have a powerful potential and, giving the growth of new myocytes, restore the damaged heart muscle, and, in addition, they remove scars and strengthen the walls of blood vessels.
During the first stage of treatment of cardiosclerosis, the required amount of stem cells to treat the patient. The cell mass undergoes the most careful selection, as a result of which the most active elements are released. The next step is the transplantation process itself, after which the beneficial effect of stem cells on the affected heart muscle and the whole body as a whole begins immediately.
In the overwhelming majority of cases, positive changes are noted already three months after the onset of cellular therapy. It should be noted that it is absolutely compatible with other types of treatment and, significantly potentiating their effect, allows you to achieve very good results.
Stem cells gradually, step by step, stimulate cellular regeneration of the affected tissues. Thanks to this, the work of the heart improves: the ejection fraction increases, tones sound more distinct, conduction and rhythm are normalized. In addition, cell therapy is becoming a kind of prevention of new cardiovascular catastrophes.