Stem cell in treatment of myocardial infarction

Stem cell in treatment of myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction is characterized by necrosis, that is, the death of the heart muscle as a result of acute disturbance of the coronary circulation against the background of a discrepancy between the physiological demand of the myocardium for oxygen and its delivery to it.

In view of the fact that this is a fairly widespread ubiquitous pathology that threatens a lethal outcome (mortality rate 10-12%), and, moreover, has significantly rejuvenated recently, great attention is paid to the search for the most effective ways to combat it and its consequences throughout the world. …

It is vital for any patient after a myocardial infarction to restore adequate heart function, and to establish good patency of the blood vessels feeding him, in order to prevent the occurrence of a repeated catastrophe. In this regard, such a promising approach as cell therapy based on the use of autologous stem cells promises to help. The method is based on the ability of young immature cells to differentiate into cardiomyoblasts and to give rise to new cardiac tissue at the site of the necrosis area that has arisen.

Cell therapy for myocardial infarction has been used quite successfully for the third decade. Its essence consists in the introduction into the heart of patients who have had a heart attack, their own stem cells, previously extracted from the bone marrow. For this, after carrying out the procedure for taking it out of the total mass, elements are isolated that have the ability to turn into muscle tissue. Then the prepared stem cells are introduced into the coronary arteries, through which they can get directly to the necrotic part of the heart muscle (in the zone of the suffered heart attack).

This manipulation does not require a separate surgical intervention, since the described injection is performed during the stenting operation – an artificial expansion of the coronary lumen, designed to restore the blood supply to the heart muscle by installing a special cylindrical design in the stenotic (narrowed) vessel. In this case, the stem cells enter through the same probe with which the expander was previously introduced into the blocked artery.

Once in the place of the defect, they begin to gradually fill it with themselves, forming a full-fledged muscle tissue of the heart. Thus, at the cellular level, the necessary regeneration occurs, which at the organ level is manifested by an increase in the contractility of the heart. The recovery process of the heart muscle makes itself felt, as a rule, in the second month after this procedure.

The effectiveness of the technique is confirmed by both the improved clinical picture and the results of control instrumental studies.

Treatment with stem cells has a number of unique features, the most important of which in this case is the ability to restore the correct functioning of both the heart and blood vessels, as well as normalize the functioning of all other organs, systems, tissues, eliminating the consequences of the disaster.

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